Investment Based Risk Factors
Investing in the Company’s Units is very risky. You should be able to bear a complete loss of your investment. You should carefully consider the following factors, including those listed in the accompanying business plan.
Development Stage Business
The Company has only a limited history upon which an evaluation of its prospects and future performance can be made. The Company’s proposed operations are subject to all business risks associated with new enterprises. The likelihood of the Company’s success must be considered in light of the problems, expenses, difficulties, complications, and delays frequently encountered in connection with the expansion of a business, operation in a competitive industry, and the continued development of advertising, promotions and a corresponding customer base. There is a possibility that the Company could sustain losses in the future.
There can be no assurances that True Nature Holding, Inc. will ever operate profitably.
Dependence on Management
In the early stages of development, the Company’s business will be significantly dependent on the Company’s management team. The Company’s success will be particularly dependent upon our senior management team, which we have not recruited at this time. The loss of any one of these individuals could have a materially adverse effect on the Company. For more information about the responsibilities and individuals of the Management team please see the “MANAGEMENT” section.
Risks Associated with Expansion
The Company plans on expanding its business through the introduction of a sophisticated marketing campaign, and the acquisition of an extensive library of compounding pharmaceutical formulations. Any expansion of operations the Company may undertake will entail risks. Such actions may involve specific operational activities, which may negatively impact the profitability of the Company. Consequently, unit holders must assume the risk that (i) such expansion may ultimately involve expenditures of funds beyond the resources available to the Company at that time, and (ii) management of such expanded operations may divert Management’s attention and resources away from its existing operations, all of which factors may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s present and prospective business activities.
Customer Base and Market Acceptance
We expect to market direct to consumers, and through doctors who can write prescriptions for the benefit of their clients. Ideally, we would target fifty percent (50%) or our product sales to be for the veterinary market, and fifty percent (50%) based on specialized compound formulations. A key element of our plan is the establishment of a marketing effort promoting our product and services offerings.
While the Company believes it can further develop the existing customer base, and develop a new customer base through the marketing and promotion of the website, the inability of the Company to further develop such a customer base could have a material adverse effect on the Company. Although the Company believes that its product matrix and its interactive e-commerce website offer advantages over competitive companies and products, no assurance can be given that Company Name’s products and e-commerce website will attain a degree of market acceptance on a sustained basis or that it will generate revenues sufficient for sustained profitable operations.
The pharmaceutical and pharmacy industries are highly competitive. We expect to compete against branded drug companies, generic drug companies, outsourcing facilities and other compounding pharmacies. The drug products available through branded and generic drug companies with which our formulations compete have been approved for marketing and sale by the FDA, are required to be manufactured in facilities compliant with cGMP standards, and are permitted to be manufactured, produced and distributed in large bulk quantities. Although we intend to prepare our compounded formulations in accordance with the standards provided by United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) 795 and USP 797 and applicable state and federal law, our proprietary compounded formulations are not required to be, and have not been, approved for marketing and sale by the FDA at this time and, as a result, some physicians may be unwilling to prescribe, and some patients may be unwilling to use, our formulations. Additionally, formulations compounded in accordance with FDCA Section 503A must be prepared and dispensed in connection with a physician prescription for an individually identified patient and cannot be prepared in significant quantities without or in advance of such a prescription or manufactured and distributed by wholesalers in bulk quantities. These facets of our operations may subject our business to limitations our competitors with FDA-approved drugs may not face. In addition to product safety and efficacy considerations, other competitive factors in the pharmacy and pharmaceutical markets include product quality and price, reputation, service and access to scientific and technical information. The competitive environment requires an ongoing, extensive search for medical and technological innovations and the ability to develop those innovations into products and market these products effectively. Developments by our competitors could make our formulations or technologies uncompetitive or obsolete. In addition, because we are significantly smaller than our primary competitors, we may lack the financial and other resources and experience needed to identify and acquire rights to, develop, produce, distribute, market, and commercialize any of the formulations we seek to make available or compete for market share in these sectors.
Trend in Consumer Preferences and Spending
The Company’s operating results may fluctuate significantly from period to period as a result of a variety of factors, including purchasing patterns of customers, competitive pricing, debt service and principal reduction payments, and general economic conditions. There is no assurance that the Company will be successful in marketing any of its products, or that the revenues from the sale of such products will be significant. Consequently, the Company’s revenues may vary by quarter, and the Company’s operating results may experience fluctuations.
Risks of Borrowing
If the Company incurs indebtedness, a portion of its cash flow will have to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness. Typical loan agreements also might contain restrictive covenants, which may impair the Company’s operating flexibility. Such loan agreements would also provide for default under certain circumstances, such as failure to meet certain financial covenants. A default under a loan agreement could result in the loan becoming immediately due and payable and, if unpaid, a judgment in favor of such lender which would be senior to the rights of unit holders of the Company. A judgment creditor would have the right to foreclose on any of the Company’s assets resulting in a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results or financial condition.
Unanticipated Obstacles to Execution of the Business Plan
The Company’s business plans may change significantly. Many of the Company’s potential business endeavors are capital intensive and may be subject to statutory or regulatory requirements. Management believes that the Company’s chosen activities and strategies are achievable in light of current economic and legal conditions with the skills, background, and knowledge of the Company’s principals and advisors. Management reserves the right to make significant modifications to the Company’s stated strategies depending on future events.
No Assurances of Protection for Proprietary Rights; Reliance on Trade Secrets
In certain cases, the Company may rely on trade secrets to protect intellectual property, proprietary technology and processes, which the Company has acquired, developed or may develop in the future. There can be no assurances that secrecy obligations will be honored or that others will not independently develop similar or superior products or technology. The protection of intellectual property and/or proprietary technology through claims of trade secret status has been the subject of increasing claims and litigation by various companies both in order to protect proprietary rights as well as for competitive reasons even where proprietary claims are unsubstantiated. The prosecution of proprietary claims or the defense of such claims is costly and uncertain given the uncertainty and rapid development of the principles of law pertaining to this area. The Company, in common with other firms, may also be subject to claims by other parties with regard to the use of intellectual property, technology information and data, which may be deemed proprietary to others.
Projections: Forward Looking Information
Management has prepared projections regarding True Nature Holdings, Inc.’ anticipated financial performance. The Company’s projections are hypothetical and based upon a presumed financial performance of the Company, the addition of a sophisticated and well-funded marketing plan, and other factors influencing the business of True Nature Holdings, Inc.. The projections are based on Management’s best estimate of the probable results of operations of the Company, based on present circumstances, and have not been reviewed by True Nature Holdings, Inc.’ independent accountants. These projections are based on several assumptions, set forth therein, which Management believes are reasonable. Some assumptions upon which the projections are based, however, invariably will not materialize due the inevitable occurrence of unanticipated events and circumstances beyond Management’s control. Therefore, actual results of operations will vary from the projections, and such variances may be material. Assumptions regarding future changes in sales and revenues are necessarily speculative in nature. In addition, projections do not and cannot take into account such factors as general economic conditions, unforeseen regulatory changes, the entry into True Nature Holdings, Inc.’ market of additional competitors, the terms and conditions of future capitalization, and other risks inherent to the Company’s business. While Management believes that the projections accurately reflect possible future results of True Nature Holdings, Inc.’ operations, those results cannot be guaranteed.
General Economic Conditions
The financial success of the Company may be sensitive to adverse changes in general economic conditions in the United States, such as recession, inflation, unemployment, and interest rates. Such changing conditions could reduce demand in the marketplace for the Company’s products. Management believes that the impending growth of the market, mainstream market acceptance and the targeted product line of True Nature Holdings, Inc. will insulate the Company from excessive reduced demand. Nevertheless, True Nature Holdings, Inc. has no control over these changes.
Company and Industry Related Risk Factors
We aim to sell certain of our proprietary formulations primarily through a network of compounding pharmacies, but we may not be successful in our efforts to establish such a network or integrate these businesses into our operations.
A key aspect of our business strategy is to establish a compounding pharmacy network, whether through acquisitions, establishing new pharmacies or entering into licensing arrangements with third-party pharmacies, through which we can market and sell our proprietary formulations and other non-proprietary products in all 50 states. We have no experience acquiring, building, or operating compounding pharmacies or other prescription dispensing facilities or commercializing our formulations through ownership of or licensing arrangements with these pharmacies. We expect to expand our operations and personnel in the pharmacy operations area in order to further develop this compounding pharmacy network, but we may experience difficulties implementing this strategy, including difficulties that arise as a result of our lack of experience, and we may be unsuccessful. For instance, we may not be successful in our efforts to integrate, manage or otherwise realize the benefits we expect from our acquisition of any additional pharmacy businesses or outsourcing facilities we seek to acquire or build in the future, we may not be able to satisfy applicable federal and state licensing and other requirements for any such pharmacy businesses in a timely manner or at all, changes to state and federal pharmacy regulations may restrict compounding operations or make them more costly, we may be unable to achieve a sufficient physician and patient customer base to sustain our pharmacy operations, and we may not be able to enter into licensing or other arrangements with third-party pharmacies or outsourcing facilities when desired, on acceptable terms, or at all. Moreover, all such efforts to expand out pharmacy operations and establish a pharmacy network will involve significant costs and other resources, which we may not be able to afford, disrupt our other operations and distract management and our other employees from other aspects of our operations. Our business could materially suffer if we are unable to further develop this pharmacy network and, even if we are successful, we may be unable to generate sufficient revenue to recover our costs.
We will be dependent on market acceptance of compounding pharmacies and compounded formulations, and physicians may be unwilling to prescribe, and patients may be unwilling to use, our proprietary customizable compounded formulations.
We currently expect to distribute our proprietary formulations through compounding pharmacies. Formulations prepared and dispensed by compounding pharmacies contain FDA-approved ingredients, but are not themselves approved by the FDA. As a result, our formulations have not undergone the FDA approval process and only limited data, if any, may be available with respect to the safety and efficacy of our formulations for any particular indication. In addition, certain compounding pharmacies have been the subject of widespread negative media coverage in recent years, and the actions of these pharmacies have resulted in increased scrutiny of compounding pharmacy activities from the FDA and state governmental agencies. As a result, some physicians may be hesitant to prescribe, and some patients may be hesitant to purchase and use, these non-FDA approved compounded formulations, particularly when an FDA-approved alternative is available. Other reasons physicians may be unwilling to prescribe or patients may be unwilling to use our proprietary customizable compounded formulations could include the following, among others: we are limited in our ability to discuss the efficacy or safety of our formulations with potential purchasers of our formulations to the extent applicable data is available; our pharmacy operations are primarily operating on a cash-pay basis and reimbursement may or may not be available from third-party payors, including the government Medicare and Medicaid programs; and our formulations are not presently being prepared in a manufacturing facility governed by GMP requirements. Any failure by physicians, patients and/or third-party payors to accept and embrace compounded formulations could substantially limit our market and cause our operations to suffer.
We may not receive sufficient revenue from the compounding pharmacies we may acquire or develop, or with which we may partner, to fund our operations and recover our development costs.
Our business plan involves the preparation and sale of our proprietary formulations through a network of compounding pharmacies and outsourcing facilities. After completion of our initial acquisition, we expect to establish an internal sales force to pursue marketing and sales of our proprietary and other formulations in the states in which our acquisitions are authorized to operate under federal and state pharmacy laws. We also expect to pursue additional strategic transactions to broaden our geographic reach, including plans to open our own outsourcing facilities in other geographical areas. Our Company has no experience operating pharmacies and commercializing compounded formulations and we may be unable to successfully manage this business or generate sufficient revenue to recover our development costs and operational expenses.
We may have only limited success in marketing and selling our proprietary formulations through any network of compounding pharmacies we may develop. Because any of our formulations will be commercialized through a compounding pharmacy, our distribution model will not have obtained FDA approval, only limited data will be available, if any, with respect to the safety and efficacy of our formulations for any particular indication, and we will be subject to regulatory limitations with respect to the information we can provide regarding the safety and efficacy of our formulations even if such data is available. As a result, physicians may not be interested in prescribing our formulations to their patients, and we may not generate significant revenue from sales of our proprietary formulations and other products. In addition, we will be dependent on our initial acquisitions, and any other pharmacies or prescription dispensing facilities we acquire or develop and any pharmacy partners with which we may contract to compound and sell our formulations in sufficient volumes to accommodate the number of prescriptions they receive. We may be unable to acquire, build or enter into agreements with pharmacies or outsourcing facilities of sufficient size, reputation and quality to implement our business plan, and our pharmacy partners may be unable to compound our formulations successfully. If physicians and healthcare organizations were to request our formulations in quantities our pharmacies or pharmacy partners are unable to fill, our business would suffer.
Our business is significantly impacted by state and federal rules and regulations.
We expect that all of our proprietary formulations will be comprised of active pharmaceutical ingredients that are components of drugs that have received marketing approval from the FDA, although our proprietary compounded formulations have not themselves received FDA approval. FDA approval of a compounded formulation is not required in order to market and sell the compounded formulations, although in select instances we may choose to pursue FDA approval to market and sell certain potential product candidates. The marketing and sale of compounded formulations is subject to and must comply with extensive state and federal statutes and regulations governing compounding pharmacies. These statutes and regulations include, among other things, restrictions on compounding in advance of receiving a patient-specific prescription, prohibitions on compounding drugs that are essentially copies of FDA-approved drugs, prohibitions on compounding drug products for office use without a prescription for an individually identified patient, limitations on the volume of compounded formulations that may be sold across state lines, and prohibitions on wholesaling or reselling. These and other restrictions on the activities of compounding pharmacies may significantly limit the market available for compounded formulations, as compared to the market available for FDA-approved drugs.
Our pharmacy business is impacted by federal and state laws and regulations governing, among other things: the purchase, distribution, management, compounding, dispensing, reimbursement, marketing and labeling of prescription drugs and related services; FDA and/or state regulation affecting the pharmacy and pharmaceutical industries, including state pharmacy licensure, registration or permit standards; rules and regulations issued pursuant to HIPAA and other state and federal laws related to the use, disclosure and transmission of health information; state and federal controlled substance laws; and statutes and regulations related to FDA approval for the sale and marketing of new drugs and medical devices. Our failure to comply with any of these laws and regulations could severely limit or curtail our pharmacy operations, which would materially harm our business and prospects. Further, our business could be affected by changes in these or any newly enacted laws and regulations, as well as federal and state agency interpretations of such statutes and regulations. Such statutory or regulatory changes could require that we make changes to our business model and operations and/or could require that we incur significantly increased costs in order to comply with such regulations.
If any pharmacy or outsourcing facility we acquire or build or with which we partner fails to comply with the Controlled Substances Act, FDCA, or state statutes and regulations, the pharmacy could be required to cease operations or become subject to restrictions that could adversely affect our business.
State pharmacy laws require pharmacy locations in those states to be licensed as an in-state pharmacy to dispense pharmaceuticals. In addition, state controlled substance laws require registration and compliance with state pharmacy licensure, registration or permit standards promulgated by the state’s pharmacy licensing authority. Pharmacy and controlled substance laws often address the qualification of an applicant’s personnel, the adequacy of its prescription fulfillment and inventory control practices and the adequacy of its facilities, and subject pharmacies to oversight by state boards of pharmacy and other regulators that could impose burdensome requirements or restrictions on operations if a pharmacy is found not to comply with these laws. Any such noncompliance could also result in complaints or adverse actions by respective state boards of pharmacy, FDA inspection of the facility to determine compliance with the FDCA, loss of FDCA exemptions provided under Section 503A, warning letters, injunctions, prosecution, fines, loss of required government licenses, certifications and approvals, any of which could involve significant costs and could cause us to be unable to realize the expected benefits of these pharmacies’ operations. Although we ultimately expect to distribute our proprietary formulations through a network of compounding pharmacies, we may not be successful in establishing such a network and the loss of an ability to compound sterile formulations would have an immediate adverse impact on our ability to successfully and timely implement our business plan.
Many of the states into which we may deliver pharmaceuticals have laws and regulations that require out-of-state pharmacies to register with, or be licensed by, the boards of pharmacy or similar regulatory bodies in those states. These states generally permit the dispensing pharmacy to follow the laws of the state within which the dispensing pharmacy is located. However, various state pharmacy boards have enacted laws and/or adopted rules or regulations directed at restricting the operation of out-of-state pharmacies by, among other things, requiring compliance with all laws of the states into which the out-of-state pharmacy dispenses medications, whether or not those laws conflict with the laws of the state in which the pharmacy is located, or requiring the pharmacist-in-charge to be licensed in that state. Further, under federal law Section 503A of the FDCA seeks to limit the amount of compounded products that a pharmacy can dispense interstate. The interpretation and enforcement of that provision is dependent on the FDA entering into a MOU with each state setting forth limits on interstate compounding. In February 2015, the FDA presented a draft MOU that, if adopted, and signed by states would limit the amount of interstate units dispensed from a compounding pharmacy to 30% of all compounded and non-compounded units dispensed or distributed by the pharmacy per month. This MOU, if adopted and signed by states, and any other state laws or requirements that may be enacted that prohibit or restrict the interstate operations of pharmacies could involve significant additional costs to us in order to sell compounded formulations in certain states and could have an adverse effect on our operations.
If a compounded drug formulation provided through our compounding services leads to patient injury or death or results in a product recall, we may be exposed to significant liabilities or reputational harm.
The success of our business, including our proprietary formulations and pharmacy operations, will be highly dependent upon medical and patient perceptions of us and the safety and quality of our products. We could be adversely affected if we or any other compounding pharmacies or our formulations and technologies are subject to negative publicity. We could also be adversely affected if any of our formulations or technologies, any similar products sold by other companies, or any products sold by other compounding pharmacies prove to be, or are asserted to be, harmful to patients. For instance, to the extent any of the components of approved drugs or other ingredients used by any of our acquisitions to produce our compounded formulations have quality or other problems that adversely affect the finished compounded preparations, our business could be adversely affected. Also, because of our dependence upon medical and patient perceptions, any adverse publicity associated with illness or other adverse effects resulting from the use or misuse of our products, any similar products sold by other companies or any products sold by compounding pharmacies could have a material adverse impact on our business.
To assure compliance with USP guidelines, we intend to implemented a policy whereby 100% of all sterile compound batches produced by our acquisitions are tested both in-house and externally by an independent, FDA registered laboratory that we understand based on the laboratory’s representations operates in compliance with current good laboratory practices prior to their delivery to patients and physicians. However, we could still become subject to product recalls and termination or suspension of our state pharmacy licenses if we fail to fully implement this policy, if the laboratory testing does not identify all contaminated products, or if our products otherwise cause or appear to have caused injury or harm to patients. In addition, such laboratory testing may produce false positives, which could harm our business and impact our pharmacy operations and licensure even if the impacted formulations are ultimately found to be sterile and no patients were harmed by them. If adverse events or deaths or a product recall, either voluntarily or as required by the FDA or a state board of pharmacy, were associated with one of our proprietary formulations or any compounds, or any other acquired or developed pharmacy or pharmacy partner, our reputation may suffer, physicians may be unwilling to prescribe our proprietary formulations or order any prescriptions from such pharmacies, we may become subject to product and professional liability lawsuits, or our state pharmacy licenses could be terminated or restricted. If any of these events were to occur, we may be subject to significant litigation or other costs and loss of revenue, and we may be unable to continue our pharmacy operations and further develop and commercialize our proprietary formulations.
Although we intend to acquire secured product and professional liability insurance for our pharmacy operations and the marketing and sale of our formulations, our current or future insurance coverage may prove insufficient to cover any liability claims brought against us. Because of the increasing costs of insurance coverage, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or obtain insurance coverage that will be adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.
Our ability to generate revenues will be diminished if we fail to obtain acceptable prices or an adequate level of reimbursement from third-party payors.
We expect that our initial acquisitions will operate on mostly a cash-pay basis and will not submit large amounts of claims for reimbursement through Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, although our customers may choose to seek available reimbursement opportunities to the extent that they exist. We are currently in communications with third-party public and private payors regarding potential reimbursement options for certain of our proprietary formulations, but we may be unsuccessful in these efforts. Many third-party payors have imposed significant restrictions on reimbursement for compounded formulations in recent years. Additionally, even if we were to pursue and obtain FDA-approval for a particular product candidate, significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products. Moreover, third-party payors, including Medicare, are increasingly attempting to contain health care costs by limiting coverage and the level of reimbursement for new drugs and by refusing, in some cases, to provide coverage for uses of approved products for disease indications for which the FDA has not granted labeling approval. As a result, reimbursement from insurance companies and other third-party payors may never be available for any of our products or, if available, it may not be sufficient to allow us to sell the products on a competitive basis. If government and other third-party payors do not provide adequate coverage and reimbursement levels for our formulations, the market acceptance for our formulations may be limited.
We may not be able to correctly estimate our future operating expenses, which could lead to cash shortfalls.
Our estimates of our future operating and capital expenditures are based upon our current business plan, the anticipated expenses associated with any of our acquired operations and our current expectations regarding the commercialization of our proprietary formulations. Our projections may vary significantly as a result of changes to our business model and strategy. We have no experience operating a pharmacy and commercializing compounded formulations, and we may not accurately estimate expenses and potential revenue associated with these activities. Additionally, our operating expenses may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, including those discussed in this Item 1A, some of which are outside of our direct control. If we are unable to correctly estimate the amount of cash necessary to fund our business, we could spend our available financial resources much faster than we currently expect. If we do not have sufficient funds to continue to operate and develop our business, we could be required to seek additional financing earlier than we expect, which may not be available when needed or at all, or be forced to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our proposed operations.
We expect to rely on third party relationships to assist in our identification, research, assessment and acquisition of new formulations. If we do not successfully identify and acquire rights to potential formulations and successfully integrate them into our operations, our growth opportunities may be limited.
We expect our initial acquisitions to provide us with limited research and development support and access to additional novel compounded formulations. However, we expect to continue to rely, primarily upon third parties to provide us with additional opportunities. We may seek to enter into similar arrangements with other third parties and for other formulations in the future, but only if we are able to identify attractive formulations and negotiate agreements with their owners on terms acceptable to us, which we may not be able to do. If we are unable to utilize the formulations and the relationships with pharmacists, physicians and other inventors to provide us with additional development opportunities, our growth opportunities may be limited. Moreover, we have limited resources to acquire additional potential product development assets and integrate them into our business and acquisition opportunities may involve competition among several potential purchasers, which could include large multi-national pharmaceutical companies and other competitors that have access to greater financial resources than we do.
We expect that the pharmacist, physician and research consultants and advisors with whom our acquisitions have history will also provide us with significant assistance in our evaluation of product development opportunities. These third parties generally engage in other business activities and may not devote sufficient time and attention to our research and development activities. If these third parties were to terminate their relationships with us, we may be unable to find other, equally qualified consultants and advisors on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and we may have significant difficulty evaluating potential opportunities and developing and commercializing existing or any new product candidates. As a result, we face financial and operational risks and uncertainties in connection with any future product or technology acquisitions, and those we do complete may not be beneficial to us in the long term.
We may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize our proprietary formulations or any other assets we may acquire.
Our future results of operations will depend to a significant extent upon our ability to successfully develop and commercialize in a timely manner any of the assets we have acquired or to which we will acquire rights in the future. We expect to pursue development and commercialization opportunities with respect to certain of these formulations and we are in the process of assessing certain of our other assets in order to determine whether to pursue their development or commercialization. In addition, we expect to consider the acquisition of additional intellectual property rights or other assets in the future. There are numerous difficulties and risks inherent in acquiring, developing and commercializing new formulations and product candidates, including the risks identified in this offering.
Once we determine to pursue a potential product candidate, we develop a commercialization strategy for the product candidate. These commercialization strategies could include, among others, marketing and selling the formulation in compounded form through compounding pharmacies, or pursuing FDA approval of the product candidate. We may incorrectly assess the risks and benefits of our commercialization options with respect to one or more formulations or technologies, and we may not pursue a successful commercialization strategy. If we are unable to successfully commercialize one or more of our proprietary formulations, our operating results would be adversely affected. Even if we are able to successfully sell one or more proprietary formulations, we may never recoup our investment. Our failure to identify and expend our resources on formulations and technologies with commercial potential and execute an effective commercialization strategy for each of our formulations would negatively impact the long-term profitability of our business.
We may participate in strategic transactions that could impact our liquidity, increase our expenses and distract our management.
From time to time we may consider strategic transactions, such as out-licensing or in-licensing of compounds or technologies, acquisitions of companies, and asset purchases. Additional potential transactions we may consider include a variety of different business arrangements, including strategic partnerships, joint ventures, spin-offs, restructurings, divestitures, business combinations and investments. In addition, another entity may pursue us or certain of our assets or aspects of our operations as an acquisition target. Any such transactions may require us to incur charges specific to the transaction and not incident to our operations, may increase our near and long-term expenditures, may pose significant integration challenges, and may require us to hire or otherwise engage personnel with additional expertise, any of which could harm our operations and financial results. Such transactions may also entail numerous other operational and financial risks, including, among others, exposure to unknown liabilities, disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s time and attention in order to develop acquired products, product candidates, technologies or businesses.
As part of our efforts to complete any significant transaction, we would need to expend significant resources to conduct business, legal and financial due diligence, with the goal of identifying and evaluating material risks involved in the transaction. Despite our efforts, we may be unsuccessful in ascertaining or evaluating all such risks and, as a result, we may not realize the expected benefits of any such transaction, whether due to unidentified risks, integration difficulties, regulatory setbacks or other events, and we may incur material liabilities for the past activities of acquired businesses. If any of these events were to occur, we could be subject to significant costs and damage to our reputation and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We may need additional capital in order to continue operating our business, and such additional funds may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms, or at all.
We have not started generating cash from operations, and do not yet receive any revenues from any operations. Although we believe we have sufficient cash reserves to operate our business for at least the next 6 months, we will need significant additional capital to execute our business plan and fund our proposed business operations. Additionally, our plans for this period may change, our estimates of our operating expenses and working capital requirements could be inaccurate, we may pursue acquisitions of pharmacies or other strategic transactions that involve one-time expenditures or we may experience growth more quickly or on a larger scale than we expect, any of which may result in the depletion of capital resources more rapidly than anticipated and could require us to seek additional financing earlier than we expect to support our operations.
We may seek to obtain additional capital through additional equity or debt financings, funding from corporate partnerships or licensing arrangements, sales or assets or other financing transactions. If additional capital is not available when necessary and on acceptable terms, we may need to forego pursuit of potentially valuable development or acquisition opportunities, we may not be able to continue to operate our business pursuant to our business plan or we may be forced to discontinue our operations entirely. If we issue equity or convertible debt securities to raise additional funds, our existing stockholders may experience substantial dilution, and the newly issued equity or debt securities may have more favorable terms or rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of our existing stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements or sales of assets, we may be required to relinquish potentially valuable rights to our product candidates or proprietary technologies, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we raise funds by incurring debt, we may be required to pay significant interest expenses and our leverage relative to our earnings or to our equity capitalization may increase. Obtaining commercial loans, assuming those loans would be available, would increase our liabilities and future cash commitments and may impose restrictions on our activities, such as financial or operational covenants with which we must comply. Further, we may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital and/or financing transactions, including investment banking fees, legal fees, accounting fees, printing and distribution expenses and other costs. We may also be required to recognize non-cash expenses in connection with certain securities we may issue, such as options, convertible notes and warrants, which would adversely impact our financial results.
If we are unable to establish, train and maintain an effective sales and marketing infrastructure, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates successfully.
We expect to build an internal sales and marketing infrastructure to implement our business plan with the development of internal sales teams and education campaigns to market our proprietary ophthalmology and urology formulations. We will need to expend significant resources to further establish and grow this internal infrastructure and properly train sales personnel with respect to regulatory compliance matters. We may also choose to engage third parties to provide sales and marketing services for us, either in place of or to supplement our internal commercialization infrastructure. We may not be able to secure sales personnel or relationships with third-party sales organizations that are adequate in number or expertise to successfully market and sell our proprietary formulations and pharmacy services. Further, any third-party organizations we may seek to engage may not be able to provide sales and marketing services in accordance with our expectations and standards, may be more expensive than we can afford or may not be available on otherwise acceptable terms or at all. If we are unable to establish and maintain compliant and adequate sales and marketing capabilities, through our own internal infrastructure or third-party services, we may be unable to sell our formulations or services or generate revenue.
We may be unable to demonstrate the safety and efficacy or obtain FDA regulatory approval to market and sell any product candidates for which we seek FDA approval.
Although our current business strategy is focused on developing and commercializing product opportunities as compounded formulations, we may choose to seek FDA regulatory approval to market and sell one or more of our assets as a FDA-approved drug. The process of obtaining FDA approval to market and sell pharmaceutical products is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. If we choose to pursue FDA approval for one or more product candidates, the FDA or other regulatory agencies may not approve the product candidate on a timely basis or at all. Before we could obtain FDA approval for the sale of any of our potential product candidates, we would be required to demonstrate through preclinical studies and clinical trials that the product candidate is safe and effective for each intended use. Preclinical and clinical studies may fail to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our potential product candidates. Even promising results from preclinical and early clinical studies do not accurately predict positive results in later, large-scale trials. A failure to demonstrate safety and efficacy of a product candidate to the FDA’s satisfaction would result in our failure to obtain FDA approval. Moreover, even if the FDA were to grant regulatory approval of a product candidate, the approval may be limited to specific therapeutic areas or limited with respect to its distribution, which could limit revenues, and we would be subject to extensive and costly post-approval requirements and oversight with respect to our commercialization of the product candidate.
Delays in the conduct or completion of, or the termination of, any clinical and non-clinical trials for any product candidates for which we seek FDA approval could adversely affect our business.
Clinical trials are very expensive, time consuming, unpredictable and difficult to design and implement. The results of clinical trials may be unfavorable, they may continue for several years and may take significantly longer to complete and involve significantly more costs than expected. Delays in the commencement or completion of clinical testing could significantly affect our product development costs and business plan with respect to any product candidate for which we seek FDA approval. The commencement and completion of clinical trials can be delayed and experience difficulties for a number of reasons, including delays and difficulties caused by circumstances over which we may have no control. For instance, approvals of the scope, design or trial site may not be obtained from the FDA and other required bodies in a timely manner or at all, agreements with acceptable terms may not be reached with clinical research organizations (CROs) to conduct the trials, a sufficient number of subjects may not be recruited and enrolled in the trials, and third-party manufacturers of the materials for use in the trials may encounter delays and problems in the manufacturing process, including failure to produce materials in sufficient quantities or of an acceptable quality to complete the trials. If we were to experience delays in the commencement or completion of, or if we were to terminate, any clinical or non-clinical trials we pursue in the future, the commercial prospects for the applicable product candidates may be limited or eliminated, which may prevent us from recouping our investment on research and development efforts for the product candidate and would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We will be dependent on third parties to conduct clinical trials and non-clinical studies of our formulations.
We do not expect to employ personnel or possess the facilities necessary to conduct many of the activities associated with our non-clinical research activities or any clinical programs we may pursue in the future. We have engaged, and expect to continue to engage consultants, advisors, CROs and others to design, conduct, analyze and interpret the results of studies in connection with the research and development of our products. In addition, we have in the past provided and expect to continue to provide grants to physicians and other healthcare organizations to support investigator-initiated studies of our proprietary formulations. We generally have only very limited contractual rights in connection with the conduct of any such studies. In addition, if we were to participate in clinical trials conducted under an approved investigator-sponsored NDA, correspondence and communication with the FDA pertaining to these trials would strictly be between the investigator and the FDA. The communication and information provided by the investigator may not be appropriate and accurate, which could result in reviews, audits, delays or clinical holds by the FDA that affect the timelines for these studies and potentially risk the completion of these trials. As a result, many important aspects of any studies of our proprietary formulations and clinical or non-clinical trials for any drug candidates we determine to pursue are not in our direct control.
If the third parties we engage to perform these activities fail to devote sufficient time and resources to our studies, or if their performance is substandard, it would delay the introduction of our proprietary formulations to the market or the approval of our applications to regulatory agencies. Failure of these third parties to meet their obligations could adversely affect development of our proprietary formations and product candidates and as a result could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if we successfully develop any product candidate into an FDA-approved drug, failure to comply with continuing federal and state regulations could result in the loss of approvals to market the drug.
Even if we successfully develop any product candidate into an FDA-approved drug, we would be subject to extensive continuing regulatory requirements and review, including review of adverse drug experiences and clinical results from any post-marketing tests or continued actions required as a condition of approval. The manufacturer and manufacturing facilities we would use to produce any such drug preparations would be subject to periodic review and inspection by the FDA, and we would be reliant on these third parties to maintain their manufacturing processes in compliance with FDA and all other applicable regulatory requirements. Any changes to a product that may have achieved approval, including the way it is manufactured or promoted, would often require FDA approval before the product, as modified, could be marketed. In addition, we and our contract manufacturers would be subject to ongoing FDA requirements for submission of safety and other post-market information. If we or our contract manufacturers failed to comply with these or any other applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may, among other things, issue warning letters, impose civil or criminal penalties, suspend or withdraw regulatory approval, impose restrictions on our operations, close the facilities of our contract manufacturers, seize or detain products or require a product recall.
Regulatory review also covers a company’s activities in the promotion of its FDA-approved drugs, with significant potential penalties and restrictions for promotion of drugs for an unapproved use. Sales and marketing programs are under scrutiny for compliance with various mandated requirements, such as illegal promotions to health care professionals. We are also required to submit information on our open and completed clinical trials to public registries and databases. Failure to comply with these requirements could expose us to negative publicity, fines and penalties that could harm our business.
We may face additional competition outside of the U.S. as a result of a lack of patent coverage in some territories and differences in patent prosecution and enforcement laws in foreign counties.
Filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patents on our proprietary formulations throughout the world is extremely expensive. While we have filed five international patent applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, we do not currently have patent protection outside of the U.S. that covers any of our proprietary formulations or other assets that we are currently pursuing. Competitors may use our technologies to develop their own products in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection. These products may compete with ours and may not be covered by any of our patent claims or other intellectual property rights.
Even if we were to file international patent applications for any of our current or future proprietary formulations and patents were issued or approved, it is likely that the scope of protection provided by such patents would be different from, and possibly less than, the scope provided by corresponding U.S. patents. The success of our international market opportunity would be dependent upon the enforcement of patent rights in various other countries. A number of countries in which we could file patent applications have a history of weak enforcement and/or compulsory licensing of intellectual property rights. Moreover, the legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the aggressive enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology and/or pharmaceuticals, which would make it difficult for us to stop a party from infringing any of our intellectual property rights. Even if we have patents issued in these jurisdictions, our patent rights may not be sufficient to prevent generic competition or unauthorized use. Moreover, attempting to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.
Our proprietary formulations and technologies could potentially conflict with the rights of others.
The preparation or sale of our proprietary formulations and use of our technologies may infringe on the patent rights of others. If our products infringe or conflict with the patent or other intellectual property rights of others, third parties could bring legal actions against us claiming damages and seeking to enjoin our manufacturing and marketing of affected products. Patent litigation is costly and time consuming and may divert management’s attention and our resources. We may not have sufficient resources to bring any such actions to a successful conclusion. If we are not successful in defending against these legal actions should they arise, we may be subject to monetary liability, be forced to alter our products or cease some or all of our operations relating to the affected products, or seek to obtain a license in order to continue manufacturing and marketing the affected products, which may not available on acceptable terms or at all.
We will be dependent on our management team for the growth and development of our Company.
We currently have a single executive in place, our CEO, and expect it may be some time before a full management team is in place. The recruitment of key personnel will be critical to our success. Our CEO, CFO and other senior managers will play a primary role in creating and developing our current business model, and securing much of our material intellectual property rights and related assets, as well as the means to make and distribute our current products. We will be highly dependent on this team for the implementation of our business plan and the future development of our assets and our business, and the loss of any key member of the senior team’s services to and leadership of our Company would likely materially adversely impact the Company. We presently do not expect to have key man insurance for our senior manager(s).
If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel and consultants, we may be unable to maintain or expand our business.
We have developed a new business model and have focused on building our management, pharmacy, research and development, sales and marketing and other personnel in order to pursue this business model. However, because of our lack of history, we may have significant difficulty attracting and retaining necessary employees. In addition, because of the specialized nature of our business, our ability to develop products and to compete will remain highly dependent, in large part, upon our ability to attract and retain qualified pharmacy, scientific, technical and commercial employees and consultants. The loss of key employees or consultants or the failure to recruit or engage new employees and consultants could have a material adverse effect on our business. There is intense competition for qualified personnel in our industry, and we may be unable to continue to attract and retain the qualified personnel necessary for the development of our business.
Changes in the healthcare industry that are beyond our control may have an adverse impact on our business.
The healthcare industry is changing rapidly as consumers, governments, medical professionals and the pharmaceutical industry examine ways to broaden medical coverage while controlling the increase in healthcare costs. Such changes could include changes to make the government’s Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement programs more restrictive, which could limit or curtail the potential for our proprietary formulations to obtain eligibility for reimbursement from such payors, or changes to expand the reach of HIPAA or other health privacy laws, which could make compliance with these laws more costly and burdensome. Further, the Health Reform Law may have a considerable impact on the existing U.S. system for the delivery and financing of health care and conceivably could have a material effect on our business, although the details for implementation of many of the requirements under the Health Reform Law will depend on the promulgation of regulations by a number of federal government agencies. It is impossible to predict the final requirements of the Health Reform Law, any other changes to laws and regulations affecting the healthcare industry, or the net effect of these requirements or changes on our business, operations or financial performance.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports, our operating results could be misstated, our reputation may be harmed and the trading price of our stock could decline. Our controls over financial processes and reporting may not continue to be effective, or we may identify material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls in the future. Any failure to remediate any future material weaknesses or implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our operating results, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in material misstatements in our financial statements or other public disclosures. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock.